X-ray Diffraction

STOE & Cie GmbH

STOE develops, manufactures and sells scientific instruments for the non-destructive analysis of substances. Based on the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method, these systems characterize single crystals and powder samples and give answers to which substances a particular powder or crystal contains or at which positions atoms in solid bodies are exactly located. The majority of customers are institutes at universities and industrial laboratories worldwide doing research in chemistry, pharmacy, mineralogy or material science. STOE, originally founded in 1887, to manufacture equipment for the optical analysis of crystals, has been a pioneer in powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction since the 1960’s, e.g. STOE invented and patented the transmission geometry technique for Powder XRD as well as, for single crystals, produced the first pixel detector XRD system with an open Eulerian cradle. PEYBORD Advanced Laboratory Science Co as sole agent of STOE products in Iran is a first class scientific company which boasts a team of expert sales engineers, product specialists, application filed Scientifics, application chemists and experienced service engineers. The team is helping users by detailed technical consulting at the time of purchasing and providing comprehensive after sales services.

Basic of X-ray Diffraction:

X-ray Diffraction (XRD) is the most useful nondestructive techniques for characterizing the atomic structure of new crystalline materials. The method provide detailed information on unit cell dimension, types of chemical bonds, size, shape and internal stress of small crystalline and a lot of other details among various crystalline materials, especially minerals , alloys and biological molecules, including vitamins, drugs, proteins and nucleic acids such as DNA and so on. A X-ray diffractometer consists of X-ray source, goniometer to restrict wavelength range, sample holder, radiation detector, data collection system and analyzing software.

Single Crystal XRD:

Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals accurate and precise measurements of molecular dimensions which could not be compared with any other methods. A Single Crystal XRD provides a beam of X-rays which strikes a single crystal with sufficient purity and regularity. The crystal scattered beams to make a diffraction pattern of spots called reflection and finally a detector records strengths and angles of these beams as the crystal is gradually rotating. The data generated providing details information about internal lattice of crystalline substances, including: details of site ordering, dimensions of unit cell, bond lengths and bond angles and so on. These data are interpreted and refined to obtain the crystal structure.
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Powder XRD:

The powder diffraction is an absolutely necessary method of material characterization and quality control, each pure material has a specific diffraction pattern which is like a fingerprint of the material, so for characterization and identification of polycrystalline phases, powder diffraction, is perfectly suited. This method provide numerous applications in industrial and academic research.
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